The mountains in western Kaokoland form part of the Great Western Escarpment of southern Africa and consists of the flat-topped Etendeka Mountains in the south, the Hartmann Mountains in the vicinity of Orupembe and northwards to the Kunene River and the Otjihipa Mountains on the eastern edge of the Marienfluss.
Being on the eastern edge of the Namib Desert, conditions vary between those prevailing on the Central Highlands and the Namib Desert below the escarpment. Vegetation in many instances overlap with that found in these regions and varies between open woodland and shrubs.
Vegetation of the Marienfluss is open savannah. The hilly and mountainous landscape is characterized by various species of Commiphora and mopane Mopane colophospermum.
Species characteristic of this region include amongst others, large-leaved corkwood Commiphora anacardiafolia, oak-leaved corkwood C. wildii, feather-leaved corkwood C. kraueseliana, Namib corkwood C. dinteri, Swakopmund corkwood C. oblanceolata, Kaoko corkwood C. kaokoensis, khaki-stemmed corkwood C. steynii, brown-stemmed corkwood C. giessii, slender corkwood C. virgata, Brandberg acacia Acacia montis-usti, Kaoko sesame-bush Sesamothamnus benguellensis, ringwood tree Maerua schinzii, kaoko aloe Aloe kaokoensis, escarpment ceraria Ceraria kaokoensis, hairy shepherd’s tree Boscia tomentosa, short-stemmed naboom Euphorbia otjingandu, whistle-bark euphorbia Euphorbia ohiva and Turnera oculata subsp. oculata.
Information provided by Wessel Swanepoel.